• Second moment of area moment of inertiaSecond area moment calculation and radius of gyration of common shapes about weak and strong axes
  • Cubic orientation of primary and shear stresses and principal stress cosine rotationCombine primary and shear stresses into equivalent and principal stresses & their cosines
  • Nucleus and electron shells of atomic elementFind, sort and reorganise the properties of nature's atomic elements with active periodic table
  • Formulas included in Engineering PrinciplesCalculate unknowns in principle engineering formulas: stress, moments, power, energy, capstans, fluids, etc.
  • Properties of a triangle with inscribed and circumscribed circlesCalculate the properties of triangles and triangular configurations including inscribed and circumscribed circles
Area Moment calculation1 Combined Stress calculation2 Elements database3 Engineering Principles calculation4 Trigonometry calculation5
PhD Suggestions Assignments... Earth Fuels Pollution Sub-atomic Physics Transport Fact, Fiction & Hmm!

Suggested Independent Study & Research Topics

References are indicated thus: ⁽¹⁾ refers to note 1 at the bottom of this page.

Our reason for including PhD topics in this website can be found in About Us.

Topics will be altered and added as we discover new ideas, studies are completed or we lean towards an alternative approach.

We have provided summary support information in pages: 'Earth', 'Fuels', 'Pollution', 'Sub atomic Physics', Transport', etc. on this website, all of which is widely available in books and on the internet, simply for ease of access and information normalisation.

This page has been organised as follows:

CalQlata's understanding of the subject matter
Assignment: Workscope title
A brief summary of the suggested workscope

The subject matter and/or workscope has been sub-divided (a, b, c, i, ii, iii, etc.) where it appears to be too large for a single assignment

1) Unification Theory

The unification of atomic and sub-atomic physics is the single most important unresolved issue for mankind today....
Imagine a world where material tests and experimentation are unnecessary.
Where you could simply add up and take away the properties of elements, isotopes, elementary particles with maths.
The possibilities are endless, enabling us to design materials and determine conditions and chemical reactions in seconds with absolute accuracy and no environmental, material or financial impact.
You could even design and build your own ions and isotopes.

This is currently not possible because whilst we can predict the behaviour of atomic particles and to some extent the behaviour of sub-atomic particles (super-string theory) these two theories are not yet compatible.
The unknown relationship between atomic and sub-atomic mathematics has been dubbed "Unification Theory"

1a) The Atom: Atomic string property definition

There appears to be a significant discrepancy between the mass of a proton and the mass of the quarks a proton is thought to contain. Current assumptions are that this discrepancy "must be due to the motion of the quarks". But because we already know that protons and neutrons possess 'gravity' and 'mass' and there must be a force holding the quarks together, it should be possible, using what we know of the atom and strings to quantify the number and condition of the quarks, leptons, bosons, etc. within an atom given what we know of their mass, gravitational and electrical properties.

A successful conclusion to this problem will provide sufficient information to complete most if not all other string conditions.

1b) e=mc² ?: String energy states

It should be possible to discover if a string can carry more than one energy state either coincidentally or separately and isolate even just a few of them given a solution to 1a (above), or to show that each string-type is necessarily different to every other string-type.

If one string can carry more than one energy state, can this be incorporated in the formula: e=m.c²? and must each energy state or any combination always be unique for the system to work.

1c) Energy States: String periodic table

If it is possible to complete studies 1a and 1b above, it must be possible to develop a Mendeleev type Periodic Table of all expected (and known) string energy states. This table will allow us to put together a mathematical prediction for the behaviour of all string energy states.

1d) Energy Transfer: String energy transfer mechanism and conditions

If 1c above has been established, it should be possible to identify the mechanism whereby each energy state can be modified and/or transferred between strings and under what condition(s) it can/must occur.

1e) Unification Theory: Unification theory

If 1d above has been completed, it should be possible to identify the mathematical relationships that govern chemical interaction (energy transfer) between individual and multiple strings.

2) CO₂

It is possible to increase atmospheric CO₂ by as much as fifty times (Earth's Atmosphere, Note 6 and Earth, Note 12) without harming life on earth but significantly improving plant life. It is also a fact that there is no man-made global warming and CO₂ contributes less than 0.04% towards the earth's "atmospheric thermal banket". It can also be shown mathematically that increasing earth's atmospheric CO₂ will actually reduce atmospheric temperature. It therefore seems illogical (Pollution, Note 2) that we should be trying so desperately to reduce atmospheric CO₂.

What is needed now is an independent, impartial and rational study on what is actually required in terms of atmospheric CO₂ to ensure plant-life proliferation and to see if it is achievable.

Due to the prominence of this subject today and the fact that CO₂ is currently (and incorrectly) regarded as pollution CalQlata believes that this subject should be given a high priority.

2a) Oceanic Emissions: Oceanic gas emission quantification

There are no reliable records of the quantity of CO₂ currently being generated by the earth through its oceans, yet this should not be an impossible task.

Given that continental O₂ producing plants don't benefit from CO₂ trapped in the oceans, we need to know how much of it manages to escape into the atmosphere where it will be useful.

CO₂ gas emission rates need to be measured at the surface of the oceans over a given period of time, at various locations and various distances from the mid-ocean ridges that will provide a global emission pattern, the accuracy of which will improve with time. It should be possible to devise and commence such a programme within the 5-year study period for a PhD as well as define a strategy and procedure for long-term future measurement.

The coincident collection of related continental emission data (2b below) should enable others to later develop prediction methods for the earth's CO₂ production enabling mankind to adjust artificial production of the gas intelligently.

2b) Land Emissions: Continental gas emission quantification

There are no reliable figures identifying the quantity of CO₂ currently being generated by the earth on dry land. Whilst this is a much more difficult task than that described in 2a above, there is no reason why it can't be done.

For example, we apparently know how fast the plates are moving and we can probably extrapolate the amount of material being lost in the subduction process over a given period of time. If gas quantities emitted by active volcanoes above a particular subduction area can be measured, it should be possible to correlate plate movement rate with gas emissions.

If this is then factored for the total length of active subduction zones around the earth it should be possible to establish the amount of CO₂ generated on land and to generate a formula for predicting continental CO₂ emissions based on tectonic plate movement.

It may be that 5 years is insufficient time for this quest. In which case, it could be divided into two:
2b.i "Identify the amounts and types of gas emitted from the earth's continental land masses."
2b.ii "Generate a formula for predicting continental CO₂ emissions based on tectonic plate movement."

2c) CO₂ Concentration: CO₂ requirements to sustain earth's animal life

Given that long-term CO₂ generation is falling and will continue to fall until the earth's internal heat energy fails, if it is considered beneficial for animal life as we know it to continue to exist on earth for as long as possible, we need to ensure that the CO₂ generated by the earth and supplemented by mankind is sufficient for this purpose.

Because of the extensive media attention given to CO₂ reduction, nobody has yet bothered to work out whether or not we actually need more CO₂, not less! All the earth's deserts are spreading because of reducing CO₂ and eventually we may well reach a point where insufficient O₂ is being generated by the shrinking plant population on the earth to maintain its animal life.

On the basis of the above workscope, it should be possible to identify the quantity of CO₂ required to produce the plants needed to create the O₂ necessary to maintain the animal life on earth.

It should be possible to estimate the O₂ required for the survival of the earth's tonnage of animal life along with the volume of plant life the earth needs to generate this oxygen. If so, it should be possible to calculate how much CO₂ is required to maintain this plant life.

2d) CO₂ & O₂: Exactly how much of each gas constitutes pollution and/or minimum necessary for healthy animal life

Everywhere we (CalQlata) look we find claims that an increase in the percentage of CO₂ in the atmosphere represents a risk to life on earth.

This approach seems strange as both gases exist separately in the atmosphere and both have separate effects on earth's inhabitants.

It is important therefore to discover, not what percentage of CO₂ in the atmosphere causes ill-health to animals, but the mass of the gas that does so, and;
The mass quantity of O₂ required to maintain a healthy animal life, and;
Are the two related.
If they are related, define a graphical or mathematical relationship between the two.

3) The Earth

The earth flips its magnetic poles and moves its continental land masses around at will. As far as we know, the magnetic poles have not reversed since mankind has been around, making it difficult for us to know the consequences of such an event.

Life on earth may be put at risk if a magnetic flip results in the earth's shield being reduced or even removed for any significant period of time exposing it to solar radiation and/or if this event involves an actual flip of the earth on its axis.
An interesting 'off-the-wall' possibility is that the moon has arrived since the last time the magnetic poles flipped. The moon has a strong stabilising effect on the earth's tilt. Could it be that regular flipping occured as a result of planetary gravitational forces (just like Mars and Venus)?

Life on earth is dependent upon warmth and the earth's weather patterns help keep it that way (along with CO₂ generation - see topic 2) above) and without which the earth would naturally be covered in ice. As far as we know, each time a super-continent has formed almost all extant life on earth has been killed perhaps because of disrupted weather patterns and reduced subduction zones.

It would be useful to know when either of these events is expected to reoccur.

3a.i) Magnetic Poles: Magnetic pole mechanism

3a.ii) Magnetic Poles: Earth axis flip

3a.iii) Magnetic Poles: Loss of magnetic field

Identify the mechanism that defines the North-South pole direction of the earth's magnetic field and why and how it occurs (e.g. extra-terrestrial gravitational effects).

Find out whether these magnetic flips leave the earth's surface exposed to solar radiation and as to whether or not this exposure will be dangerous. This can be done by examining the properties of rocks either side of recorded flip(s).

Find out whether these magnetic flips involved an actual flip of the earth on its axis. If the earth does indeed flip on its axis, its seasonal consistency will be disrupted (summer becomes winter, etc.) and this may be detectable in rocks or core samples.

It is also possible that the earth's core rotates at a slightly different speed than its crust/plates, and that these rotations can be relatively faster or slower. If the core rotating within the crust behaves like a giant motor, it is possible that the poles flip when the relative rotational speed reverses.

Can ocean tidal activity really be proven before the last flip? Is the evidence proposed by Dr Eriksson (of the Australia National University in Canberra) emphatic?

Can the existence (or non-existence) be proven before the last time the earth's magnetic poles flipped?

3b) Next Super-Continent: When will it occure and what will happen?

If each time the earth's land masses came together to create a super continent the vast majority of life on earth was killed and as it is inevitable that this will reoccur, a much more detailed study of the consequences of such an event is required than has been done to date.

By plotting the speed and direction of the earth's plates, it should be possible to identify the consequential shortening (or lengthening) of the subduction zones. Significantly shortened subduction zones will reduce pressure relief resulting in much more violent events in those zones remaining. Significantly longer subduction zones will increase relief resulting in lower CO₂ production. Either event could have catastrophic consequences for life on earth.

Given that we know how fast the earth's plates are moving, it should be possible to predict when this will happen again and the resultant effect on subduction zones.

4) Pollution

It is apparent that pollution policy around the world is driven by earnings given current attitudes towards CO₂, batteries and diesel fuel. Reducing atmospheric CO₂ is not 'green', batteries are pollutants and diesel engines emit far more pollution than petrol engines.

This 'attitude' is also reflected in the following fact: It is understood that CO pollutes life and that CO₂ does not because regulations impose the fitment of a catalytic converter, which converts CO to CO₂, to all internal combustion engines. However, users of these vehicles are then taxed on the amount of CO₂ their vehicle emits!

It is dangerous to create biodegradable materials. Biodegradable polymers will not safely break down to their elementary constituents (hydrogen, carbon, chlorine, etc) as that would require chemical reactions. Instead it will break down into hydrocarbon molecules too small to handle and therefore dispose of carefully. These residual chemicals will end up in the environment polluting water, the ground in which we grow our food and and the air we breathe. All polymers should be made recyclable for as many times as practicable and then broken down chemically in a controlled environment.

A thorough and impartial study is urgently required to define pollution, identify pollutants and generate a coherent material recycling policy.

4a) Identification: Define pollution on earth

It should not be difficult to identify exactly what constitutes pollution once we have defined what we are trying to protect.

4b) Heavy Metals: Batteries (mining, production, use & recycling)

After radioactive waste, batteries probably represent one of the greatest current pollution threats to animal and plant life on earth. A detailed study of the effect of the mining activities needed to recover rare earths and heavy metals is urgently required before battery production for cars increases exponentially.

It should be borne in mind that all batteries have a short useful life and recycling issues have not yet been resolved.

4c) Recycling: Identify and optimise material usage & recyclability

Given that it is always better to recycle materials than to dispose of them, even at the sacrifice of cost, a global recycling policy based on a technical understanding of suitable materials is essential. Yet material recycling around the world is currently based upon very little technical knowledge or understanding.

The number of different materials used for packaging, vehicle interiors, furniture, etc. could be reduced significantly with a little consideration. Recycling costs would be significantly reduced if fewer materials were used in greater quantity. And where such materials have a limited recyclable life (e.g. plastics), it would be helpful to know what could be done to turn them into something useful at the end of their practical life.

As metals can be recycled indefinitely, concentration on these materials should be given a priority over, say, plastics. Light weight (but weaker) metals can be utilised perfectly satisfactorily by clever design and processing techniques.

This study could be based upon a widely-used/multi-material product such as a car. Produce a technical (chemical) list of all the materials used in a single car for as many different manufacturers as possible. Then see how much of the material list can be optimised. Complete a procedure for this process along with advice on how this should be expanded for all manufactured products.

This study is extremely urgent as the continued uncontrolled use or optimisation of materials will have a far greater effect on pollution than vehicle emissions.

5) Transport

We have not seen a single fully integrated transport system that works. We believe however, that it should be possible to create one.

A system that optimises cost, pollution, mobility, safety & comfort is based upon maths and logic. You need to evaluate the following to optimise a system:
The options available are, for example:
Do you have canals? can you build them? Remember the Romans did it two thousand years ago with a lot less technology than we have today.
Do you have a coastline that will allow you to use coastal waters to deliver freight much closer to the ultimate destination thereby relieving the road network.
How much pollution and land-space will be saved by building an intercity Hover-Train system?
Which fuels should be used for each vehicle?
How many vehicles for each system, how big should they be, how frequently should they run? What is the basis for the decision-making processes?

We also believe that speed limits don't work in their current form. And that nothing useful is being done to correct this problem. Given the controversy surrounding this issue and that this is a purely mathematical problem, we believe it is worthy of separate study.

5a) The Plan⁽¹⁾: Devise a practical transport plan

Based on a country with a freely available modern international transport system and using all the potential forms of long and short distance travel and transport, devise a theoretical transport plan that optimises safety, speed, personal freedom and pollution. Schematically define the networks (air-traffic-control, roads, ports, canals, etc.) for this country detailing the expected improvements.

5b) Traffic Control: Optimisation formula for road mobility and safety

It is possible to apply technical and mathematical analysis to road transport to optimise pollution, congestion, speed and safety.

Whilst motor manufacturers and their suppliers are continually improving the consequences⁽²⁾ of a vehicle accident, and it would be impossible to prevent all accidents without stopping all movement of all life on earth, it should be possible to reduce the number of accidents.

Given that speed limits in their current form do not improve; safety, pollution, congestion, etc., an in-depth mathematical and technical evaluation of traffic control to optimise mobility with safety that includes the effects of vehicle and road improvements is urgently required.

6) Life on Earth

It is possible that a meteorite was indeed the sole cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. The fact that the meteorite was not in itself sufficiently large to have generated the necessary level of atmospheric pollution may not be the determining factor. The Deccan Traps region on the other side of the planet erupted at about the same time and the two events together would definitely have been sufficiently damaging to have killed off the dinosaurs as the Deccan Traps were active for about a million years.
By way of another coincidence, it was about this time that India hit the Asian land-mass!

The question is; could the Deccan Traps have been initiated by the resonances generated by the meteorite impact?

6a) What Caused the Extinction of the Dinosaurs: Match the dates of the meteorite impact and the initial erruption of the Deccan Traps

It should be possible to find and carbon date the earliest part of the continuously produced lava rock that formed part of the Deccan Trap erruption and thereby identify the date of their initiation.

Moreover, it should also be possible to date of the small impact craters around the rim of the hole that must have been created in the earth's crust by the meteorite impact⁽³⁾.

If the dates are close enough, it is probable that the one event (the meteorite impact) caused the other event (the Deccan Traps) and together they caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.


  1. The scope of this study is probably beyond the remit for a PhD study period and should probably be performed by an independent body or individual with sufficient resources.
  2. See Transport, Note 3 for a small sample of improvements made by the motor manufacturers over the last 50 years.
  3. The actual impact location appears to have been identified in and around Mexico; see publication reference 30

Further Reading

You will find further reading on these subject in the following pages on this website:
Earth, Fuels, Pollution, Sub-atomic Physics and Transport....

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