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Calculator Description
Carbon Steel Calculator v1
Carbon Steel predicts the mechanical properties of a plain, special or alloy carbon steel according to the SAE/AISI grading system.

Carbon Steel


The mechanical properties of carbon steels are notoriously difficult to nail down as various data sources predict different properties for what appears to be the same material. This is not because they are incorrect it is simply because they are based upon varying circumstances, i.e.; the actual chemical composition, its condition, e.g. normalised, annealed, cold-rolled, hot-rolled, hardened and tempered and/or how it was prepared, e.g. cyanide hardened, nitride hardened, carburised, etc.

However, there is a pattern of behaviour between the mechanical properties of SAE-AISI carbon steels and their chemical composition.

CalQlata has developed a mathematical relationship based upon this pattern from which it is possible to predict the mechanical properties of all carbon steels; plain, special and alloy, from their chemical composition and heat treatment.

Therefore, it is now not only possible to predict the mechanical properties of a carbon steel from its chemical composition or its SAE-AISI grade, but also the reverse; i.e. to identify an SAE-AISI grade from its chemical composition and its hardness.


Carbon Steel includes a comprehensive database of SAE-AISI grades with their chemical composition (range).

The carbon steel calculator uses the above mentioned mathematical relationship and the SAE-AISI grade database through two calculation options:

Composition to Property; predicts the mechanical properties you can expect from a carbon steel forging given its chemical composition and hardness, and also identifies the appropriate SAE-AISI grade (real or imaginary).

Grade to Property; predicts the mechanical properties you can expect from a given SAE-AISI grade (real or imaginary) plain, special or alloy carbon steel in its forged and tempered condition.

Note: This calculator has not been officially endorsed by the SAE or AISI. It is CalQlata’s interpretation of the material grading system and should be read in conjunction with CalQlata’s web pages on carbon steel.

For help using this calculator see Technical Help

Carbon Steel Calculator - Options

Carbon Steel has two calculation options both of which predict mechanical properties based upon chemical composition but using different inputs:

Composition to Property

You enter a Brinell hardness number and a chemical composition (percentage for each element), except for the carbon content, and the carbon steel calculator will; calculate the carbon content required to achieve the entered hardness, allocate a grade according to the SAE/AISI numbering system and predict its mechanical properties in normalised (and cold-rolled) condition.

You enter: and the carbon steel calculator will provide:
  • Brinell hardness number
  • Manganese [%]
  • Phosphorus [%]
  • Sulphur [%]
  • Nickel [%]
  • Chromium [%]
  • Vanadium [%]
  • Molybdenum [%]
  • Silicon [%]
  • SAE/AISI grade
  • Carbon [%] (average)
  • Yield strength (average)
  • Tensile strength (average)
  • Elongation (average)
  • Carbon equivalent (average)

Grade to Property

You enter an SAE/AISI grade name (real or imaginary) and the carbon steel calculator will estimate its chemical composition and predict its mechanical properties. Carbon Steel's Grade List will display the nearest extant SAE/AISI grade to that which you have entered. If you select an extant steel grade from the Grade List it will be transferred to your input data and calculated automatically.

If you enter a tempering temperature between 200°F and 1200°F, Carbon Steel will calculate the expected properties of the material hardened and tempered at that temperature.

You enter: and the carbon steel calculator will provide:
  • SAE/AISI grade
  • Tempering temperature
  • Chemistry
  • Yield strength (range)
  • Tensile strength (range)
  • Elongation (range)
  • Hardness (range)
  • Carbon equivalent (range)
  • Heat Treated Condition:
  • Yield strength (range)
  • Tensile strength (range)
  • Elongation (range)
  • Hardness (range)

Note: You will find additional assistance with carbon steels on the following web pages: Metal Properties, Carbon Steel, SAE/AISI Steel Grading, Plain Carbon Steels, Special Carbon Steels, Alloy Carbon Steels & Uses

Check minimum system requirements

Price: £15.00

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