Symbols
Wherever possible, CalQlata use standard symbols (as we understand them). However, as there is no such thing as universal consistency, CalQlata applies the following symbols to its calculations:
If you cannot find the symbol you are looking for, e.g. MA or yx in the list below, you should search for the first character, e.g. M (moment) & y (distance) and then look for the second character in the list of suffixes, e.g. A (end 'A') and x (horizontal direction).
Notes
 Beams includes Plates and Stress includes Fatigue
 In the Table below, we indicate the field of application (e.g. maths, engineering, etc.) before supplying the definition of the symbol.
 Capital Letters: angles (except as specified above)
 Lowercase Letters: dimensional lengths (except as specified above)
 () Text alternatives are displayed in normal brackets
 [] Units are displayed in square brackets
 {} Suggestions are displayed in curly brackets
Symbol  Meaning 

a 
Maths: length 
a 
Hydrodynamics & Engineering: acceleration see also Derivative Symbolism at the bottom of this page 
aₒ 
Physics: Bohr radius 
ap 
Electrical: apparent power 
A 
Maths: angle 
A 
Engineering: area 
A 
Engineering: amplitude or deflection (dynamic) 
Aƒ 
Engineering: amplification factor 
Atm 
Engineering: atmospheres 
b 
Maths: length 
b 
Engineering: breadth (width) 
B 
Maths: angle 
B 
Engineering: buoyancy 
c 
Maths: length 
c 
Dynamics: viscous damping coefficient 
c 
Hydrodynamics: celerity 
cp 
Thermodynamics: specific heat capacity at constant pressure 
cv 
Thermodynamics: specific heat capacity at constant volume 
Cp 
Thermodynamics: heat capacity at constant pressure 
Cv 
Thermodynamics: heat capacity at constant volume 
C 
Temperature: Celcius or centigrade 
C 
Maths: angle & circumference 
C 
Electrical: capacitance 
C 
Engineering: coefficient 
C 
Fluids: Cauchy number 
Ca or Cm 
Hydrodynamics: added mass coefficient 
Cd 
Hydrodynamics: drag coefficient 
Cᴸ 
class 
₵ 
Engineering: centreline 
₠ 
clearance 
d 
Engineering: depth 
d 
distance 
d 
Time: day 
e 
Stress: strain 
e 
Maths: eccentricity 
e 
Physics: elementary charge 
E 
Stress: Young's modulus 
E 
Fluids: Euler number 
E 
Thermodynamics: total energy 
ECF 
Engineering: end cap force 
Ef 
Stress: flexural modulus 
EI 
Engineering: bending stiffness 
ƒ 
Fluid Dynamics: Colebrook's fanning friction factor 
ƒ 
Engineering: frequency 
ƒⁿ 
Engineering: natural frequency 
F 
Engineering: force 
F 
Temperature: Fahrenheit 
F 
Fluids: Froude number 
g 
gravitational acceleration 
G 
Engineering: shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) 
h 
Time: hour 
h 
Engineering: height 
h 
Thermodynamics: specific enthalpy 
h 
Stress: Weibull parameter 
h 
wind chill factor (kcal/m^{2}/h) 
h 
Physics: Planck's constant 
ħ 
Physics: Dirac's constant 
H 
Engineering: composite second moment of area (product of I_{xx} & I_{yy}) 
H 
Thermodynamics: enthalpy 
I 
Engineering: second moment of area (moment of inertia) 
I̊ 
Engineering: rotational (moment of) inertia 
I 
Electrical: current 
J 
Engineering: polar moment of inertia 
J 
Thermodynamics: mechanical equivalent of heat 
Jͫ 
Thermodynamics: mechanical equivalent of heat 
k 
Engineering: spring constant 
k 
Hydrodynamics: wave number 
K 
Temperature: Kelvin 
K 
Engineering: bulk modulus 
K_{c} 
Engineering: KeuleganCarpenter number 
ℓ 
Engineering: part length 
L 
Electrical: inductance 
L 
Engineering: total length 
Lon & Lat 
Survey: longitude and latitude 
m 
Engineering: mass 
mₑ 
Physics: mass energy 
mᵣ 
Physics: restmass 
ḿ 
Engineering: slope Whilst 'm' means slope in maths (e.g. y=mx+C), engineering has no standard symbol for 'slope' 
mn 
Time: minute 
M 
Fluids: Mach number (fluid flow) 
M 
Engineering: moment 
MBR 
Engineering: minimum bend radius 
MMC+ 
Engineering: maximum metal condition 
MMC 
Engineering: minimum metal condition 
n 
number 
p 
Engineering: pressure 
p 
Hydrodynamics: period 
p 
Electrical: power 
p 
Work & Energy: Power 
pdl 
Engineering: poundal 
pf 
Electrical: power factor 
pₒ 
Work & Energy: Power (if used alongside pressure) 
P 
Engineering: pitch 
PC 
Fluids: pressure coefficient 
Q 
Fluids: quantity flow rate e.g.: 
Q 
Electrical: charge 
Q 
Thermodynamics: heat energy 
r 
radius / inside radius 
ɍ 
radius of gyration 
R 
Temperature: Rankine 
R 
outside radius 
R 
Electrical: resistance 
R 
Thermodynamics: gas constant (ideal gas) 
Rₐ 
Thermodynamics: specific gas constant (ideal gas) 
Rᵢ 
Thermodynamics: universal gas constant (ideal gas) 
Rᴺᵒ 
Fluids: Reynold's number 
RPS 
revolutions per second 
RPM 
revolutions per minute 
R_{v} 
Fluids: velocity ratio 
s 
Thermodynamics: specific entropy 
s 
Stress: primary stress 
s 
Time: second 
S 
Thermodynamics: entropy 
S 
Stress: principal stress 
Ṡ 
Stress: maximum principal stress 
Ṣ 
Stress: minimum principal stress 
Ṩ 
Stress: most damaging principal stress 
S 
Fluids: Strouhal number 
SG 
specific gravity (relative density) 
t 
time 
t 
Engineering: thickness 
T 
Engineering: torque 
Ṯ 
temperature 
u 
initial velocity 
U 
Engineering: energy 
U 
Stress: utilisation 
U 
Thermodynamics: internal energy 
Uᴷ 
Thermodynamics: kinetic energy 
Uᴾ 
Thermodynamics: potential energy 
v 
Hydrodynamics & Engineering: velocity see also Derivative Symbolism at the bottom of this page 
v 
Thermodynamics: specific volume 
V 
volume 
V 
vector 
V 
Electrical: voltage 
w 
Engineering: distributed load (per unit length) 
W 
General: width 
W 
Engineering: weight 
W 
Fluids: Weber number 
W 
Thermodynamics: work 
x 
distance (horizontal) 
X 
Electrical: reactance 
y 
Maths & Engineering: distance (vertical) 
y 
Engineering: distance from neutral axis 
y 
Engineering: deformation or deflection (static) 
z 
Hydrodynamics: distance (vertical) 
Z 
Fluids: head 
Z 
Electrical: impedance 
Z 
Engineering: section modulus 
Ø 
Diameter 
α 
Engineering: linear expansivity 
α' 
Engineering: square (area) expansivity 
α" 
Engineering: cubic (volumetric) expansivity 
αᴿ 
Electrical: temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity 
α 
angle (degrees) 
β 
angle (degrees) 
γ 
specific weight 
γ 
Thermodynamics: ratio of specific heats 
ε 
Engineering: efficiency 
ε 
Maths: error 
ζ 
Engineering: stability parameter 
ζ 
Dynamics: viscous damping factor (damping ratio) 
η 
Hydrodynamics: profile 
η 
Stress: damage ratio 
θ 
angle (degrees) 
κ 
Electrical: conductivity 
λ 
Engineering: thermal conductivity 
λ 
Physics: wave length 
μ (or ƒ) 
Engineering: friction coefficient 
μ 
Fluids: dynamic viscosity 
ν 
Fluids: kinematic viscosity 
ν 
Stress: Poisson's ratio 
ρ 
Materials: density 
ρᴹ 
Chemical: molecular density 
ρᴿ 
Electrical: resistivity 
ϵ 
Engineering: surface roughness 
σ 
Fluids: surface tension 
σ 
Stress: equivalent and general stress 
τ 
Stress: shear stress 
φ 
angle (degrees) 
φ 
Engineering: phase angle 
ω 
angular frequency 
Datum: 
e.g. Ṯᴰ A datum value is defined by a superscript capital 'D'. The example shown here is for temperature. 
Prefixes: 

δ 
variation or range 
y 
yocto (1E24) 
z 
zepto (1E21) 
ɑ 
atto (1E18) 
f 
femto (1E15) 
p 
pico (1E12) 
n 
nano (1E09) 
μ 
micro (1E06) 
m 
milli (0.001) 
c 
centi (0.01) 
d 
deci (0.1) 
da 
deka (10) 
h 
hecto (100) 
k 
kilo (1000) 
M 
mega (1E+06) 
G 
giga (1E+09) 
T 
tera (1E+12) 
P 
peta (1E+15) 
E 
exa (1E+18) 
Z 
zetta (1E+21) 
Y 
yotta (1E+24) 
Suffixes: 

₁ 
Fluids: in 
₂ 
Fluids: out 
₀_{ to }₉ 
Engineering: sequencing 
a 
Engineering: anchor 
ᵅᵛᵉ or v̅ 
average note a bar above a letter (e.g. v̅) is sometimes used as an abbreviation for average in the calculators 
a 
Hydrodynamics: added mass 
A, B, etc. 
Engineering: end or position 
ᶜ 
Maths: angle in radians 
ₑ 
Stress: equivalent 
ﬂ 
Engineering: fluid 
h 
Stress: hoop 
h 
Engineering: horizontal direction 
ᵢ 
Engineering: internal 
ᵢ 
Stress: index 
l 
Stress: longitudinal 
m̂ or min 
minimum A 'ʌ' above any letter indicates a minimum value 
m̌ or max 
maximum A 'v' above any letter indicates a maximum value 
mm 
Engineering: … about weak/strong axis 
n 
Stress: nominal 
nn 
Engineering: … about strong/weak axis 
ᴺᵒ 
Number (as in Reynolds, Euler, Mach, etc.) 
ₒ 
Engineering: outside / external 
o 
Stress: total 
% 
Engineering: packing 
p 
Stress: primary 
P 
Stress: principal 
r 
Stress: radial 
t 
Engineering: terminal 
ᵀ 
total 
u 
Stress: ultimate tensile stress 
v 
Engineering: vertical direction 
w 
Engineering: wall 
x, y, z, etc. 
Engineering: horizontal, vertical, etc. position or direction 
xx, yy, zz, etc. 
Engineering: … (about) fundamental axes (xx, yy, etc.) 
xy, xz, etc. 
Engineering: … (about) compound axes (xy, xz, etc.) 
ỵ 
Stress: minimum yield 
Derivative Symolism 
Hydrodynamics & Engineering: velocity and acceleration In addition to the conventional symbols used for velocity ('v') and acceleration ('a'), CalQlata occasionally adopt the following mathematical symbols where improved recognition is assumed for groupings ('x' is provided as an example character, any character is equally valid): velocity = ẋ acceleration = ẍ 