• Second moment of area moment of inertiaSecond area moment calculation and radius of gyration of common shapes about weak and strong axes
  • Cubic orientation of primary and shear stresses and principal stress cosine rotationCombine primary and shear stresses into equivalent and principal stresses & their cosines
  • Nucleus and electron shells of atomic elementFind, sort and reorganise the properties of nature's atomic elements with active periodic table
  • Formulas included in Engineering PrinciplesCalculate unknowns in principle engineering formulas: stress, moments, power, energy, capstans, fluids, etc.
  • Properties of a triangle with inscribed and circumscribed circlesCalculate the properties of triangles and triangular configurations including inscribed and circumscribed circles
Area Moment calculation1 Combined Stress calculation2 Elements database3 Engineering Principles calculation4 Trigonometry calculation5
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Surface Finish (machining)

The following table contains the expected surface roughness (range) associated with various machining methods.


Machining Method Surface Roughness Range μm (μins)
Super-finishing 0.05>0.2 (2>8)
Lapping 0.05>0.4 (2>16)
Honing 0.1>0.8 (4>32)
Cylindrical grinding 0.1>1.6 (4>63)
Diamond turning 0.1>1.6 (4>63)
Surface grinding 0.1>1.6 (4>63)
Broaching 0.8>3.1 (32>125)
Reaming 0.8>3.1 (32>125)
Boring and Turning 0.4>6.3 (16>250)
Die Casting 0.8>1.6 (32>63)
Extruding 0.8>3.1 (32>125)
Cold Rolling and Drawing 0.8>3.1 (32>125)
Milling 0.8>6.3 (32>250)
Drilling 1.6>6.3 (63>250)
Planing and Shaping 1.6>12.5 (63>500)
Sawing 1.6>25 (63>1000)
Forging 3.1>12.5 (125>500)
Sand Casting 12.5>25 (500>1000)
Flame Cutting and Hot Rolling 12.5>25 (500>1000)

The above ranges reflect the surface finish that can be achieved using normal production machines based upon historical experience.
However, with modern machinery, correct speeds and feeds and properly prepared cutting tools, the above surface finishes can be significantly improved.

Conversely, incorrect machining procedures may produce poorer results.

Further Reading

You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications(2)

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