• The solution to Newton's GEXACT VALUE & FORMULA
  • The pressure at the centre of a massTHE MATHEMATICAL LAW (calculator)
  • The pressure at the centre of a massEARTH'S INTERNAL STRUCTURE (calculator)
  • Proof of the non-exitence of Dark MatterDOES NOT EXIST
  • The atom as Newton and Coulomb describe itNO NEED FOR A UNIFICATION THEORY
The solution to Newton's G1 The theory controlling planetary spin2 Pressure at the centre of the Earth3 Proof of the non-exitence of Dark Matter4 The atom as Newton describes it5
Useful Stuff Algebra Trig Functions Calculus Max-Min Differentiation Rules Differentiation Trig Differentiation Logs Integration Methods Standard Integrals Stiffness & Capacity Mohr's Circle Earth's Atmosphere Earth's Properties Stars & Planets Laws of Motion Solar System Orbits Planetary Spin Core Pressure Earth's Magnetic Field Dark Matter? The Big Bang Rydberg Atom Planck Atom Classical Atom Newton Atom The Atom Newton's 'G' Coulomb's 'k' The Neutron E=mc² Gravity is Magnetism Relativity is Dead Quantum Theory is Dead Stars & The Gas Planets Artificial Satellites Brakes and Tyres Vehicle Impacts Speeding vs Safety Surface Finish Pressure Classes Hardness Conversion Energy Electro-Magnetic Spectra Thermodynamics Steam (properties) Heat Work Energy Power Constants

Surface Finish (machining)

The following table contains the expected surface roughness (range) associated with various machining methods.


Machining Method Surface Roughness Range μm (μins)
Super-finishing 0.05>0.2 (2>8)
Lapping 0.05>0.4 (2>16)
Honing 0.1>0.8 (4>32)
Cylindrical grinding 0.1>1.6 (4>63)
Diamond turning 0.1>1.6 (4>63)
Surface grinding 0.1>1.6 (4>63)
Broaching 0.8>3.1 (32>125)
Reaming 0.8>3.1 (32>125)
Boring and Turning 0.4>6.3 (16>250)
Die Casting 0.8>1.6 (32>63)
Extruding 0.8>3.1 (32>125)
Cold Rolling and Drawing 0.8>3.1 (32>125)
Milling 0.8>6.3 (32>250)
Drilling 1.6>6.3 (63>250)
Planing and Shaping 1.6>12.5 (63>500)
Sawing 1.6>25 (63>1000)
Forging 3.1>12.5 (125>500)
Sand Casting 12.5>25 (500>1000)
Flame Cutting and Hot Rolling 12.5>25 (500>1000)

The above ranges reflect the surface finish that can be achieved using normal production machines based upon historical experience.
However, with modern machinery, correct speeds and feeds and properly prepared cutting tools, the above surface finishes can be significantly improved.

Conversely, incorrect machining procedures may produce poorer results.

Further Reading

You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications(2)

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