# Earth's Atmospheric Gases (the theory)

It is possible to accurately calculate the properties of the individual gases in the earth's atmosphere using well known and proven theories provided we accept the following reasonable assumptions:
1) Newton's law of gravitational attraction applies to the earth's atmospheric gases, making gravity their container
2) Dalton's law applies to all atmospheric gases
3) The average pressure of the combined gases in the earth's atmosphere (air) at sea level is 1.0 atmosphere (10332294.1352185g/m²)⁽¹⁾
4) The temperature profile for the earth's atmosphere at the poles is as shown in Fig 2 and reaches a maximum of 1206K⁽²⁾. The atmospheric temperature at the equator is 60K higher than at the poles
5) Nitrogen constitutes 78% of the total mass of the earth's atmospheric gases⁽³⁾
6) Oxygen constitutes 21% of the total mass of the earth's atmospheric gases⁽³⁾
7) Argon constitutes 0.93% of the total mass of the earth's atmospheric gases⁽³⁾
8) CO₂ constitutes 0.038% of the total mass of the earth's atmospheric gases⁽³⁾
9) The practical ceiling for any atmospheric gas is the point at which 1 molecule of the gas concerned exists for each square metre at that altitude⁽⁴⁾ Fig 1. Earth's Gravity vs Altitude

Assumption 1):
Fig 1 shows the variation in the earth's gravitational acceleration with altitude.

Assumption 2):
Dalton's law states that all the gases in a mixture of gases behave independently and should therefore be considered and analysed separately. You can easily calculate the partial pressure of each gas in the earth's atmosphere as follows:

Given that we know the density of air (ρₐᵢᵣ) at sea level is approximately 1292.8g/m³, the principal properties for each component gas at sea level are ...
[units are evaluated to corroborate the formulas]:

The molecular density of air (ρᴹₐᵢᵣ) = ρₐᵢᵣ ÷ Σρᴹₓ.RAMₓ [g/m³ ÷ % x g/mole = mole/m³]
The molecular density of each gas (ρᴹₓ) = % . ρᴹₐᵢᵣ (mole/m³)
and the mass density of each gas (ρₓ) = ρᴹₓ . RAMₓ [mole/m³ x g/mole = g/m³]
Air pressure (pₐᵢᵣ) is 101325N/m²
Gas pressure (pₓ) = % . pₐᵢᵣ (N/m²)
Gas mass pressure (pmassₓ) = pₓ . (r+H)² ÷ G . m₁ [N/m² x m² ÷ N.m²/kg² x kg = kg/m²]
which is the mass of gas in the atmospheric column and 'H' is the altitude of its centre of mass
i.e. 50% of the mass lies above this altitude and 50% of the mass lies below it

To conclude for the principal gases in the earth's atmosphere @ 273.15K:

 gas RAM percentage mole density mass density mass pressure g/mole ≈% (ρᴹₓ) mole/m³ (ρₓ) g/m³ (pmassₓ) g/m² N₂ 28.0134 78.087% 34.42594855 964.387867 8087362.21571 O₂ 31.9988 20.95% 9.236154828 295.5458711 2169233.80954 Ar 39.948 0.93% 0.410005918 16.37891643 96258.45023 CO₂ 44.095 0.03% 0.013225997 0.583200354 3104.60026 Ne 20.1797 0.0018% 0.00079356 0.0160138 186.42350 He 4.002602 0.00052% 0.000229251 0.000917599 53.85568 CHₓ 16.04246 0.0002% 8.81733E-05 0.001414517 20.71372 H 1.00794 0.000048% 2.11616E-05 2.13296E-05 4.97129 N₂O 44.0128 0.00005% 2.20433E-05 0.000970189 5.17433 O₃ 47.9982 0.000004% 1.76347E-06 8.46432E-05 0.41391 H₂O 18.01528 2% 0.881733158 15.88466972 207137.22427 Air # 29.324 101.99962% 1292.8 10563407.45

# 99.99962% air including 2% water
0.00038% trace elements are ignored

mole density of air = ρₐᵢᵣ ÷ RAMₐᵢᵣ = 1292.8 ÷ 29.324 = 44.08666 moles/m³

Incorporating the ideal gas law; p.V = n.Rᵢ.Ṯ
where:
p = pressure = force ÷ area (F/A)
V = volume
n = number of moles of substance
Rᵢ = ideal gas constant (8.3143 J/K/mole)
Ṯ = temperature (absolute)
into the equation (F = G . m₁ . m₂ / (r+H)²) we can calculate altitude 'H' as follows: Fig 2. Atmospheric Temperature Profile

F/A . V = n . Rᵢ . T
F = n . Rᵢ . T . A / V
F = n . Rᵢ . T / H (H = V/A)
If m₂ = n.RAM/1000 kg, then ...
F = G . m₁ . n.RAM/1000 / (r+H)²
n . Rᵢ . T / H = G . m₁ . n . RAM / 1000 / (r+H)²
Rᵢ . T / H = G . m₁ . RAM / 1000 / ( r² + 2rH + H²)
(r² + 2rH + H²) = H . G . m₁ . RAM / Rᵢ / T / 1000
H² + H.(2r - G . m₁ . RAM / Rᵢ / T / 1000) + r² = 0
a = 1
b = 2r - G . m₁ . RAM / Rᵢ / T / 1000
c = r²
H = {-b-√(b² - 4.a.c)} / 2a

By entering the correct altitude temperature for the latitude and additionally modifying for the effects of centrifugal force (v²/r) you will find the correct value for 'H' for each atmospheric gas.

Repeat this procedure for the uppermost 50%, modifying m₁ and r to include the gas below 'H', and you will find H for the upper 50% in the gas column. Keep going (for the uppermost 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, etc.) and you will discover how the mass pressure of gas varies with altitude. Fig 3. Earth's Atmospheric Gases @ Altitude

### Conclusion

From the above formula CalQlata has demonstrated that ...

'For any atmospheric gas with the same RAM at a given temperature, the altitude of a specified percentage of its total mass will always be identical '

Therefore irrespective of the total mass of a particular gas in the atmosphere, for any given temperature; its "percentage mass vs altitude" profile will not change.

Fig 3 shows the results from this calculation for the principal gases in the earth's atmosphere at the equator and the {poles}. Whilst weather patterns in the Troposphere will alter these theoretical pressures and densities locally, such variations will not alter the overall picture.

Using the same calculation procedure, we also generated 'mass pressure-altitude' plots for each gas (Fig 4), providing the mass of gas above the altitude in question.

### Atmospheric Gas Ceilings

The following are CalQlata's practical and theoretical ceilings⁽⁴⁾ for each gas in the earth's atmosphere at the equator and the poles:

 practical ceiling (km) theoretical ceiling (km) Gas equator poles equator poles N₂ 3998.95038 3458.49594 8103.50773 7031.05161 O₂ 3118.26617 2665.80287 6204.52442 5386.80279 Ar 1985.51194 1647.63729 4008.86933 3462.06235 CO₂ 1525.38322 1236.35231 3215.26978 2753.62086 O₃ 991.62283 776.08888 2378.94412 2001.80321 CF₂Cl₂ 159.34693 107.41656 459.18917 327.51499

The top of the Exosphere is generally accepted as the upper limit of the earth's atmosphere and for all practical purposes this may well be the case as it is difficult to consider 'a few molecules per cubic meter' constituting a viable atmosphere, but for the purposes of theoretical calculations even such low densities as these should not be ignored.

Therefore, CalQlata set out to define the actual quanties of each gas in the earth's atmosphere, and according to our calculations, there remains 14624.816171kg of nitrogen, 30.753837772kg of oxygen and traces of Argon and other gases (hydrogen helium, etc.) above the top of the Exosphere.

### Escape Altitude

Escape altitude is the point at which centrifugal force at a particular altitude (H) is equal to the gravitational pull (g) at the same altitude.
H = 35,843.42548km

Any object orbiting the earth whilst remaining over the same point of its surface would escape the earth's gravitational attraction if it exceeded the escape altitude. Moreover;
If it travels faster than the earth's rotation at the escape altitude the object will fly off into space
If it travels slower than the earth's rotation at the escape altitude the object will fall to earth

Because we know that the earth's atmospheric gases above the Troposphere will never travel faster than the earth's rotation and that the highest atmospheric gas molecule is below the escape altitude, we also know that;
"none of the earth's atmospheric gases can be lost to space due to centrifugal force"

This statement can be proven mathematically with respect to today's atmosphere as follows:
Comparing the earth's gravitational attraction on each atmospheric gas molecule with its centrifugal force at its theoretical ceiling today (see Atmospheric Gas Ceilings above), we can deduce the following:

 molecule RAM m H R Fᵍ (+ve) v Fᶜ (-ve) F (kg) (km) (m) (N) (m/s) (N) (N) N₂ 28.0134 4.69E-26 8103.51 1.448E+7 8.885E-26 1053.137 -3.589E-27 8.526E-26 O₂ 31.9988 5.35E-26 6204.52 1.258E+7 1.3443E-25 915.039 -3.562E-27 1.309E-25 Ar 39.948 6.68E-26 4008.87 1.039E+7 2.463E-25 755.366 -3.67E-27 2.426E-25 CO₂ 44.01 7.36E-26 3215.27 9.593E+6 3.181E-25 697.654 -3.7347E-27 3.143E-25 O₃ 47.9982 8.03E-26 2378.94 8.757E+6 4.1630E-25 636.835 -3.718E-27 4.126E-25 CF₂Cl₂ 120.914 2.02E-25 459.19 6.837E+6 1.72E-24 497.226 -7.313E-27 1.713E-24 proton 1 1.67E-27 8103.5 1.448E+7 3.1715E-27 1053.137 -1.281E-28 3.043E-27
where: m = mass; H = maximum ceiling height; R = distance between centres of mass; Fᵍ = gravitational force on molecule @ H; v = maximum velocity of molecule @ H; Fᶜ = centrifugal force on molecule @ H; F = resultant force on molecule @ H {+ve = towards earth & -ve = away from earth}

Gravitational force is lowest and centrifugal force is greatest in a gas at its ceiling. So if the resultant force (F) for all gases are positive (in the above table) at their atmospheric ceilings it means that no molecule can escape the earth's gravitational attraction as a result of centrifugal force. This point is reinforced by the hypothetical case for a proton at the ceiling for nitrogen.

Given that the earth's atmosphere is unlikely ever to have contained sufficient quantity of any gas to have achieved a ceiling at the earth's escape altitude (35,840km)⁽⁹⁾, the above table confirms that no part or type of any atmospheric gas has ever been thrown into outer-space as a result of centrifugal force.

## The "Ozone Layer"

The Ozone layer is said to exist in the Stratosphere between altitudes 15km and 35km

### Ozone Fig 4. Earth's Gases vs Altitude

Ozone (O₃) is an unstable molecule generated by oxygen molecules (O₂) picking up stray oxygen atoms (O) that exist after the sun's electromagnetic radiation (UV) has split other oxygen molecules in two.

It is of course natural to expect that a greater percentage of the oxygen molecules present in the higher regions of the atmosphere, where they are closer to the radiation source, will be subject to ozone generation than at lower altitudes. However, it is also true that there is much more oxygen closer to sea level than at the higher altitudes (the "Ozone Layer" contains about 17.7% of the earth's oxygen). We know from countless practical experiments and the existence of 'sun-tan' that UV radiation reaches the earth's surface, meaning that ozone is generated naturally even at sea level and that it must be a feature of the entire oxygen layer, not just the region between altitudes 15km and 35km.

As the RAM of Ozone is 47.9982g/mole, making it heavier than O₂, and as gravity is its container, its natural home in the atmosphere is at a lower altitude than the oxygen molecule (see Fig 5). Therefore, whilst ozone is generated in the region popularly referred to as the "Ozone Layer", it is not where it wants to be. It will fall towards earth immediately it is created.

As the ozone molecule is unstable, during its fall it will encounter other oxygen atoms to which it will lose (donate) its unnatural oxygen atom. Fig 5. Earth's Ozone Related Gases

Our atmospheric calculations (see Calculation Procedure above) also revealed a difference in elevation of 12.06km between the poles and the equator (42.2km & 54.26km respectively) in the 99%-oxygen altitude that some people believe represents a "Hole" in the "Ozone Layer" over the poles. Such a hole is impossible according to Dalton's law. This thinning of the oxygen layer over the poles is a natural phenomenon generated by the centrifugal force on the earth's atmosphere from its rotation about its polar axis. This thinning at the poles exists for all the earth's atmospheric gases, not just oxygen, and will always exist as long as the earth retains an atmosphere and continues to rotate about its own axis.

### CFCs

Out of interest, we applied the CFC Ozone depletion argument recently used to explain a "Hole" in the "Ozone Layer" to see if there could have been sufficient CFC gas present in the region concerned to have a significant effect on the oxygen. As can be seen in Fig 4 CFCs can have affected no more than 0.00000006% of the O₃ molecules in the "Ozone Layer". Not only is this negligible, its effect would be greater over the equator than over the poles!

## "Greenhouse" Effect

The "Greenhouse" effect is a reference to the ability of atmospheric gases to retain heat and thereby raise a planet's surface temperature, which would otherwise fall to that of outer-space (≈2.73K). The ability of any gas to retain heat energy is defined by its 'Specific Heat Capacity'.

Specific heat capacity (cp) is measured in J/kg/K (btu/lb/R) and describes how much energy a unit mass of the substance will require for each degree (K or R) of change in temperature.

If we know the mass of each gas in the earth's atmosphere, we can calculate the amount of heat energy stored in that gas and therefore its contribution to the "Greenhouse" effect.

The mass of each gas in the earth's atmosphere was established from their pressures in the above Calculation Procedure; and by multiplying the specific heat capacity by its mass we can determine the heat energy stored in each gas.

Whilst our calculation is valid for a particular temperature (273K), and the specific heat capacity of most gases rises with temperature, the relative contribution from each gas in the earth's atmosphere will remain largely unchanged.

The following table lists the results from these calculations:

 Gas cp Mass Stored Energy %age of Air J/kg/K kg J/K N₂ 983 4.13091006E+18 4.060684588E+21 79.5209485% O₂ 919 1.10774396E+18 1.018016698E+21 19.9359619% Ar 531 4.91366416E+16 2.609155669E+19 0.5109546% CO₂ 844 1.58453127E+15 1.337344390E+18 0.0261894% Ne 1030 9.50566787E+13 9.790837905E+16 0.0019174% He 5240 2.74608183E+13 1.438946878E+17 0.0028179% CHₓ 2200 1.05618532E+13 2.323607701E+16 0.0004550% H 14300 2.53484477E+12 3.624828014E+16 0.0007099% N₂O 880 2.63837434E+12 2.321769416E+15 0.0000455% (H₂O) (1859) (1.05618532E+17) (1.963448508E+20) Totals 5.28951345E+18 + H₂O 5.106433796E+21 + H₂O 100% + H₂O

The stored energy values in the above table assume that all the atmospheric gases are at 273K, which is not correct. Temperature drops and rises with altitude (see Fig 2) and the specific heat capacity of all gases rise and fall with temperature, not necessarily at the same rate but very similarly, except where certain gases fade out at various altitudes, the total percentage contribution of stored heat is virtually identical no matter how you perform this calculation.

The temperature of the earth's atmosphere is directly proportional to the heat energy retained in its gases. Therefore, a change in the mass of any gas in the earth's atmosphere will have a consequential effect on the earth's surface temperature.

The sum of all the 'Stored Energy' values in the above table (5.106E+21J/K) represents the energy in the atmosphere that would be required to raise the temperature of all the gas molecules to 273.15K.

Therefore, every single degree (1K) of this temperature must be generated by 1.8695E+19J of heat energy. In other words, to raise the temperature of the atmosphere by 1K (to 274.15K) you would need to increase the total Stored Energy by 1.8695E+19J.

To conclude;
because nitrogen is responsible for 79.52% of the atmosphere's stored energy, a 1% change in its mass will significantly affect surface temperature
On the other hand;
a significant increase (e.g. >1000%) in the mass of gases such as neon, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen that together constitute less than 0.039% of the atmosphere's stored energy will have very little effect on the earth's surface temperature.

However, if we apply the laws of thermodynamics to the above argument these effects are not quite so straight forward, for example; ...

### CO₂

Along with other carbon gases, CO₂ is today charged with being the principal cause of Global Warming (see Global Warming below) because it is a "Greenhouse" gas. This claim is made because of its low specific heat capacity; i.e. it requires less energy input to raise its temperature by 1K than the more abundant atmospheric gases (except argon). However, its contribution to the earth's atmospheric temperature can only be considered in conjunction with its relative mass.

Applying the specific heat equations to each gas in the earth's atmosphere reveals the following retationship between CO₂ and its effect on earth's atmospheric temperature:

 Gas cp CO₂ CO₂ x 0.9 # CO₂ x 10 J/kg/K kg kg kg N₂ 983 4.1309E+18 4.1309E+18 4.1309E+18 O₂ 919 1.1077E+18 1.1077E+18 1.1077E+18 Ar 531 4.9137E+16 4.9137E+16 4.9137E+16 CO₂ 844 1.5845E+15 1.4261E+15 1.5845E+16 Ne 1030 9.5057E+13 9.5057E+13 9.5057E+13 He 5240 2.7461E+13 2.7461E+13 2.7461E+13 CHₓ 2200 1.0562E+13 1.0562E+13 1.0562E+13 H 14300 2.5348E+12 2.5348E+12 2.5348E+12 N₂O 880 2.6384E+12 2.6384E+12 2.6384E+12 Air: mass: 5.2895E+18 kg 5.2894E+18 kg 5.3038E+18 kg cp: 965.3882 J/kg/K 965.3918 J/kg/K 965.0618 J/kg/K Ṯ: 293.7471 K 293.7548 K 293.0563 K
The energy supply in the above calculations is the same for each column: 1.5E+24J
As this is a constant in each calculation changing the energy input will not alter the relative results
Conservatively based upon the assumption that mankind generates 50% of the earth's CO₂: 0.9 = 90% = 50% + 50% x 80%

As can be seen in the above table, increasing the quantity of CO₂ actually decreases the temperature of the earth's atmosphere.
This phenomenon is due to the fact that the additional mass of the increased CO₂ in the atmosphere (CO₂: 1.585E+15 kg > 1.585E+16 kg) more than offsets the reduction in combined specific heat capacity of the gas mixture (air: 965.3882 J/kg/K > 965.0618 J/kg/K).
As a result, it can be concluded that significant increases in atmospheric CO₂ will have no appreciable effect on the temperature of the air, other than to reduce it slightly.

In fact increasing any gas in a mixture that contains a fixed amount of heat energy will cause the temperature of the mixture to drop as the energy is distributed over a greater number of molecules.
For example, if 1kg of the earth's atmospheric mass holds 235156.5J of energy and has a temperature of 273K; increasing its mass by 1% with:
N₂ reduces the temperature of the gas mixture to 269.4K
O₂ reduces the temperature of the gas mixture to 270.6K
Ar reduces the temperature of the gas mixture to 272.0K
CO₂ reduces the temperature of the gas mixture to 270.9K
Therefore, simply increasing the earth's atmospheric CO₂ cannot increase its temperature.

However, if the entrained heat energy in the gas mixture is also increased by 2% (for each of the increases shown above):
N₂ increases the temperature of the gas mixture to 274.785K
O₂ increases the temperature of the gas mixture to 276.01K
Ar increases the temperature of the gas mixture to 277.4K
CO₂ increases the temperature of the gas mixture to 276.35K
clearly showing that Argon has a greater effect on atmospheric temperature than CO₂

The above increase in entrained heat (2%) along with the gas mass increase (1%) represents the following percentage increases for each gas in the mixture:
N₂ would need to increase by 1.28%
O₂ would need to increase by 5%
Ar would need to increase by 200%
CO₂ would need to increase by 2564.1%
proving that ...
only a small percentage increase in N₂ and O₂ is needed to raise the temperature of the earth's atmosphere by ≈3K
almost double the amount of Ar is needed to achieve a similar rise in temperature
but more than 26 times current levels of CO₂ are required to generate a similar rise in temperature

However, the nail in the coffin for the theory associating CO₂ with 'global warming' is utimately simple logic:
1) When the earth was less than 1bn years old it was much more active than today (more CO₂)
2) The earth's tectonic plates had probably not fully developed, meaning less subduction
3) There was no life on planet earth (or at least negligible when compared to today), so no long-term carbon cycle
4) As such there was much more CO₂ in the earth's atmosphere
5) The seas were shallower, most less than 500m, and covered a much larger percentage of the earth's surface and were therefore more susceptible to evaporation (which would have warmed the atmosphere)
... and yet the earth was covered in liquid water

### Counter-Arguments

Recent work on The Atom shows that all electrons in a gas collect and disperse electro-magnetic energy (heat) equally and continuously irrespective of the atoms to which they are assigned, which is fully in accordance with the theory of Heat. As such, CO₂ will only contribute heat to neighbouring atoms and molecules according to its proton-electron pair population.
This means that the number of proton-electron pairs in CO₂ (22) will not contribute any more (or less) heat to a gas mixture than, say, two oxygen atoms (16) and three helium atoms (6) of which there is over 530 times as much in the earth's atmosphere. It is difficult to claim therefore, that CO₂ contributes more to atmospheric heat than any other gas per unit mass.

It is fatuous to claim that this atom or that molecule does not obey the ideal gas law, for instance, withoput offering the mathematical proof to back it up. It is akin to Einstein and Bohr claiming that the laws of physics do not apply to galactic orbits or atomic models in order to justify their bizarre theories, that not only cannot relate to the normal laws of physics, they do not even relate to each other. It is an untenable position and easily disproved (Relativity & Quantum Theory).
Every proton-electron pair in every atom and every molecule, without exception, obeys the same laws of nature. To claim otherwise is simply deluding oneself.

# The EU is claiming that Europe must reduce mankind's carbon emissions by 20% by 2020⁽⁵⁾. Even if a reduction of 20% was achievable, as can be seen from the above table it would have no noticeable effect on the earth's atmospheric temperature, other than to increase it slightly.

Furthermore, despite all the concerns over the contribution carbon dioxide may have on global warming, argon contributes 50 times more to the earth's atmospheric temperature than CO₂ and because its RAM is less than that of carbon dioxide, an increase in its mass will not offset a resultant temperature increase to the same extent.

## Earth vs Venus (atmospheric comparison)

It is claimed that when both planets were young, say 1 billion years old, Earth and Venus were very similar and that Venus' runaway atmosphere was due to excessive CO₂
It is also claimed that if the earth’s CO₂ is allowed to rise just a few 10ᵗʰs of a percent above its current level, the earth’s atmosphere could end up similar to that of Venus.
We have already shown that CO₂ cannot cause this problem on earth (see CO₂ above), but;
we have not shown the probable reason for Venus' atmospheric temperature.

Venus and Earth are respectively about 100 million km and 150 million km from the sun.
The sun's radiated energy is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from its surface.
The ratio of Venus' and Earth’s respective energy budget from the sun is:
4.π.Rᵥ² ÷ 4.π.Rₑ² = Rᵥ² ÷ Rₑ² = 1.911

Venus therefore receives 1.911 times more of the sun’s heat energy than does the earth

Given the thermodynamic equation Q = m.cp.Ṯ and the fact that both planets are claimed to have been similar in material and behaviour, m and cp may be ignored for their atmospheric properties (due to similarity), therefore; Ṯₑ ÷ Qₑ = Ṯᵥ ÷ Qᵥ from which, the sun's contribution to Venus' surface temperature is: Ṯₑ x Qᵥ ÷ Qₑ = Ṯᵥ = 1.911 x Ṯₑ

Today, the earth's surface temperature is less affected by the heat generated in its mantle where its crust is thickest, i.e. in its continents than through its sea floor.
Most of the sun's heat energy reaches the ground at the equator when the sun is at its highest in the sky (≈40°C), and the least of the sun's heat energy reaches the earth at its poles (≈-50°C).
Therefore the sun's heat must be responsible for generating the difference between the ground temperature at the equator and at the Antarctic (90K).

If the earth's ground temperature varies between 225K and 315K, the heat from the sun at Venus’ equator must be 225K + 1.911 x 90K = 397K (124°C); i.e. higher than the boiling point of water at 1 atmosphere⁽¹⁾.

To this can be added the following facts:
Photographic and radiographic evidence of the surface of Venus shows that it has never had tectonic plates, which is a strong indication that it has never had the liquid surface water required for subduction#.
Earth's geological evidence shows it had liquid surface water 3.5bn years ago and the boiling temperature of water on Earth at that time was less than it is today (< 100°C) due to a much thinner atmosphere⁽⁹⁾ (< 1atm⁽¹⁾) therefore the earth's water temperature must have been considerably less than 100°C.
If Venus and the earth were both similar they must have supported similar quantities of water as the earth does today (≈1.386E+21kg⁽⁸⁾) and as it is not, and probably never has been, in liquid form on Venus' surface it must always have existed in vapour form in its atmosphere.
If all the water on Venus is gaseous the mass of its atmosphere must have been at least 258 times greater than that of the earth's atmosphere today (>258 atm; see CO₂ above) increasing the boiling point of water on Venus' surface to above 374°C (Venus' surface temperature is today ≈450°C#)
# Because Venus has no continents its crust is equally thick over its entire surface and thinner than the earth's continental crust, therefore, Venus' mantle will have a greater effect on its surface temperature than on the earth where its thin crust is covered with deep water.

In conclusion, earth's atmosphere has never been similar to that of Venus and could not possibly degenerate to such a condition unless it moves considerably closer to the sun.

## Global Warming Fig 6. Air temperature records for 100 years

CalQlata has searched high and low for independent atmospheric temperature records that indicate a global trend upwards and found none.

For the purpose of clarification, we have plotted the records from one site⁽⁶⁾ for atmospheric pressure, which is directly related to temperature through the relationship PV=RT (Fig 6). It indicates no noticeable increase in temperature.

What is considerably more worrying, however, is that according to Milankovitch, we are about to enter into another ice-age. Fig 7. The Milankovitch Cycles

Milutin Milankovitch⁽⁷⁾ was a scientist of incredible vision and ability. He set out to prove a relationship between the earth's hot and cold cycles and the movements of the sun, moon and planets in our solar system and his theories have since been proven correct by studying the coral reefs on the Caribbean island of Barbados. This insight has given us the ability to predict and plan for future climatic events.

CalQlata has reproduced a simplified version of his graph of hot and cold periods simply to illustrate the point (Fig 7).

### Notes

1. 10332294.1352185g/m² = 1 atmosphere ≈ 14.7psi = 0.1N/mm² (CalQlata's UniQon)
2. Whilst atmospheric temperature is included in the calculation procedure, the final calculation results appear to be relatively insensitive to significant variations. That is, alterations of up to 20% to the temperature vary overall altitudes and percentages by less than 1%
3. http://www.space.com/17683-earth-atmosphere.html and reference publication 15
4. CalQlata's practical ceiling is the altitude above which less than one molecure exists for each square meter of the atmospheric sphere and is based upon the fact that above this point there is no mass contributing to the column of gas generating atmospheric pressure at sea level.
CalQlata's theoretical ceiling is the altitude above which the theory cannot account for a single molecule of the gas concerned.
5. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2007/feb/21/climatechange.climatechangeenvironment
6. http://www.wunderground.com/resources/pressure_records.asp?MR=1
7. http://www.zo.utexas.edu/courses/Thoc/Milankovitch_Cycles.html
8. USGS statistics
9. The two gases that constitute 99% of today's atmosphere (oxygen and nitrogen) were trace elements before plant life first ventured onto land around 350m years ago