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Materials Carbon Steel SAE Steel Grading Plain Carbon Steels Special Carbon Steels Alloy Carbon Steels Stainless Steels Uses Utilisation

SAE AISI Plain Carbon Steels

CalQlata's term 'plain carbon' steels refers to what is generally known as 'carbon' steels
They comprise iron with: <1% carbon, <1% manganese, <0.04% phosphorus & <0.05% sulphur⁽¹⁾

This table forms the basis for the physical properties (strength, elongation and hardness) of all carbon steels in the SAE-AISI series, including special and alloy carbon steels

Scroll to the bottom of the page for an explanation of the following Table and plain carbon steels.

10XX (<1.0% Manganese)

Data in blue font is associated with unadopted grades and therefore anticipated by CalQlata.

AISI
No
C (%)
min<max
Mn (%)
min<max
σy (ksi)
min<max
σu (ksi)
min<max
e (%)
min<max
Hardness
(BHN)
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
<0.06
<0.08
<0.09
<0.1
<0.15
0.35
0.25<0.4
0.2<0.45
0.3<0.5
0.3<0.6
<22
<25
<26
<27.5
<32.5
<32
<35
<36
<37.5
<42.5
<40
<35
<34.7
<34.3
<32.9
<115
<120
<123
<125
<128
1010
1011
0.08<0.13 0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9
25<50 35<60 20<35 87<117
96<126
1012
1013
1014
0.1<0.15 0.3<0.6
0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
27.5<52.5 37.5<62.5 19.6<34.3 90<120
96<126
99<129
1015
1016
0.13<0.18 0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9
30<55 40<65 19.2<33.6 95<125
105<135
1017
1018
1019
0.15<0.2 0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
32.5<62.5 42.5<72.5 18.8<32.9 98<128
108<138
113<143
1020
1021
1022
0.18<0.23 0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
35<65 45<75 18.4<32.2 103<133
113<143
118<148
1023
1024
0.19<0.25 0.3<0.6
0.7<1.0
37.5<67.5 47.5<77.5 18<31.5 105<135
121<151
1025
1026
1027
0.22<0.28 0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
40<70 50<80 17.6<30.8 110<140
121<151
126<156
1028
1029
0.25<0.31 0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9
42.5<72.5 52.5<82.5 17.2<30.2 115<145
126<156
1030
1031
0.28<0.34 0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
45<75 55<85 16.8<29.4 132<162
137<167
1032
1033
0.3<0.36 0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
47.5<77.5 57.5<87.5 16.4<28.7 135<165
141<171
1034
1035
1036
1037
0.32<0.38 0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
0.3<0.6
0.7<1.0
50<80 60<90 16<28 134<164
138<168
126<156
144<174
1038 0.35<0.42 0.6<0.9 52.5<82.5 62.5<92.5 15.6<23.7 145<175
1039
1040
1041
0.36<0.44 0.7<1.0
0.6<0.9
0.3<0.6
55<85 65<95 15.2<26.6 153<183
147<177
134<164
1042
1043
0.4<0.47 0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
57.5<87.5 67.5<97.5 14.8<25.9 153<183
159<189
1044
1045
1046
0.43<0.5 0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
60<90 70<100 14.4<25.2 144<174
158<188
165<195
1047
1048
1049
0.46<0.53 0.3<0.6
0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
62.5<92.5 72.5<102.5 14<24.5 149<179
159<189
164<194
1050
1051
1052
1053
0.47<0.55 0.6<0.9
0.3<0.6
0.5<0.8
0.7<1.0
65<95 75<105 13.6<23.8 167<197
151<181
161<191
174<204
1054
1055
0.5<0.6 0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9
70<100 80<110 12.8<22.4 158<188
173<203
1056
1057
1058
0.53<0.63 0.3<0.6
0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
72.5<102.5 82.5<112.5 12.4<21.7 162<192
173<203
178<208
1059
1060
1061
1062
0.55<0.65 0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
0.3<0.6
0.7<1.0
75<105 85<115 12<21 176<206
182<212
166<196
188<218
1063
1064
1065
1066
0.6<0.7 0.3<0.6
0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
80<110 90<120 11.2<18.6 174<204
185<215
191<221
199<229
1067
1068

1069
1070
0.65<0.75 0.3<0.6
0.5<0.8

0.4<0.7
0.6<0.9
85<115 95<125 10.4<17.2 182<212
193<223

187<217
199<229
1071
1072
1073

1074
0.7<0.8 0.7<1.0
0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9

0.5<0.8
90<120 100<130 9.6<15.8 210<240
190<220
198<228

202<232
1075
1076
1077

1078
0.72<0.85 0.4<0.7
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0

0.3<0.6
92.5<122.5 102.5<132.5 9.2<15.1 206<236
218<248
222<252

195<225
1079
1080
1081
1082
0.75<0.88 0.3<0.6
0.6<0.9
0.5<0.8
0.7<1.0
95<125 105<135 8.8<14.3 200<230
219<249
213<243
228<258
1083
1084
1085
0.8<0.93 0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
100<130 110<140 8<12.9 221<251
228<258
237<267
1086
1087
1088
0.82<0.95 0.3<0.5
0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
102.5<132.5 112.5<142.5 7.2<12.1 211<241
225<255
231<251
1089
1090
1091
0.85<0.98 0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
105<135 115<145 6.6<11.3 230<260
237<267
246<276
1092
1093
1094

1095
0.9<1.03 0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0

0.3<0.5
110<140 120<150 5.8<10 238<268
245<275
255<285

224<254
1096
1097
1098
1099
0.95<1.08 0.3<0.6
0.5<0.8
0.6<0.9
0.7<1.0
115<145 125<155 5.2<8.7 232<262
246<276
254<284
264<294
  Above materials are cold rolled⁽²⁾ and include <0.04% Phosphorus (P) and <0.05% Sulphur (S)

SAE AISI Plain Carbon Steel (physical properties)

Virtually every carbon steel property Table that CalQlata's engineers have encountered contains conflicting and/or incomplete information due to the material's potential for modification (see Carbon Steel). This doesn't mean the Tables are incorrect, it simply means that the information provided is either very general or very specific. Incomplete Tables are usually due to SAE not having adopted the grade designation (1001 to 1099) in question. This ambiguity and lack of information can be extremely frustrating when trying to identify or specify a plain carbon steel.

CalQlata engineers have devised a means to complete this Table (above) based upon property prediction. It should be noted, however, that CalQlata has assumed the carbon and manganese content for unadopted grade designations that may change when SAE-AISI eventually allocate a chemical composition to the grade. CalQlata will update the Table with revised properties as new grades are adopted.

Careful consideration of the data available on the three carbon steel Tables on this website (plain, special and alloy steels) should enable you to select exactly the right carbon steel grade for your desired hardness (wear resistance), elongation (ductility) and strength (SMYS and UTS) requirements whilst keeping the carbon content to a minimum for maximum fatigue life and/or welding needs (CEV). Elongation is normally used to ensure quality compliance during material testing. Alternatively, you use CalQlata's carbon steel calculator to predict the properties of existing or non-existent SAE carbon steel grades.

Notes:
You should select the highest manganese content (within the grade specification) if your component is to be subjected to high temperatures for long periods.
The highest strength in the range for the material normally occurs <½" material thickness and the lowest strength normally occurs >4" material thickness

SAE Grading System

Until recently SAE '10XX' plain carbon steels included those with more than 1% manganese. This has now changed as all plain carbon steels with more than 1% manganese have been allocated their own grading system '15XX' (see Special Carbon Steels). Any such original '10XX' grades; e.g. 1051 and 1052 have now been regraded to 1551 and 1552 and the original '10XX' numbers have become vacant again (see Materials page 'SAE grading System').

Whilst there are exceptions to the general rule, until now SAE-AISI have sorted the grading system as follows:

The last two digits 'XX' in the grade '10XX' represent the carbon content multiplied by 100 and fall numerically somewhere between the minimum and maximum value in the range (±0.05%) of carbon for the grade
e.g. 1032 & 1033 both fall between the carbon content range of 0.3<0.36% and 1047, 1048 & 1049 all fall between the carbon content range of 0.46<0.53%

Each grade within a carbon content range is allocated a different manganese content
(usual range options: '0.3<0.6%', '0.4<0.7%', '0.5<0.8%', '0.6<0.9%' and '0.7<1.0%')
e.g. 1032 and 1033 have the same carbon content but the former has been allocated 'Mn 0.6<0.9%' and the latter has been allocated 'Mn 0.7<1.0%', whilst 1047, 1048 and 1049 all have the same carbon content, they have been allocated 'Mn 0.3<0.6%', 'Mn 0.5<0.8%' and 'Mn 0.6<0.9%' respectively

Apart from iron, carbon, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur plain carbon steels contain only traces of other elements (the lower the quantity of trace elements the higher the steel quality).

Notes

  1. CalQlata has generated a predictive calculator for carbon and alloy steels
  2. For hot-rolled materials: Reduce 'SMYS' & 'UTS' by 15%; Increase 'e' by 15%

Further Reading

You will find further reading on this subject, incl. heat treatment, in our carbon steels web page

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